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Quran Organization / Structure (contd.)

Juz / Para (Part)

In South Asia, Juz is also called "Para". The Qur'an was equally divided into thirty parts, perhaps based on the number of pages disregarding content or Surah. This was done for the convenience of reciting the whole Qur'an in thirty days or one month. Each Juz is also divided into four quarters or four "ruba". The Qur'an copies printed anywhere in the world have Juz and quarter markings as ruba' (first quarter), nusf (one-half) and al-thulatha (three-quarter). This gives 120 quarter-parts of the Qur'an giving the flexibility of reciting the whole Qur'an in equal parts in 30, 60 or 120 days. This type of partitioning of the Qur'an is used very much in South Asia whereas the Arab world does not make much use of it. Even referring to Qur'anic verses South Asians would talk in terms of "Para" number as they carry numbers from 1 to 30 for each Juz. This kind of referring to the Qur'an verses is very unscientific because it does not provide precise location of the verse. If someone says that a verse is in 15th Para, it is not precise enough to find it easily.

Hizb (group)

According to this system each Juz is further divided into two Hizbs and each Hizb is further divided into four quarters. It means that a Juz has two Hizbs and eight Hizb-quarters or each Juz-quarter has two Hizb-quarters. The whole Qur'an is divided into 240 Hizb-quarters. This allows a person to recite the Qur'an in small groups of verses and complete the recitation in one-month to eight-month period. In addition, Hizb partitioning of the Qur'an allows a Muqri (Qur'an reciter) to recite one Hizb in each Raka'ah of Salat at-Traweeh and finish one Juz every night in eight Raka'hs thereby completing the whole Qur'an in 30 nights of Ramadan. Partitioning of the Qur'an in Hizb is not found in the copies printed in South Asia.

Ruku' (bowing or section)

Some Muslims prefer to do 20 raka'ah every night for Salat At-Taraweeh during the month of Ramadan, that is, recite a section and go to ruku' (bowing). They had to find markers to recite a portion of the Qur'an in each Raka'ah while completing a topic. In South Asia the tradition is to complete recitation of the whole Qur'an in 27 nights. This required partitioning of the Qur'an in 27 x 20 = 540 sections excepting the Surah al-Fatiha. When such partitioning was done they ended up with 556 (+1 for Surat al-Fatiha) sections. Evidently, they did not go back to redo the partitioning to come with 540 sections. The Qur'an copies printed in South Asia have Ruku' or Section markings showing number of the ruku' within the Surah, within the Juz and ayah number within the ruku'. Traditionally, South Asian Muslims may give reference of a ayahs from the Qur'an by referring to the ruku' number and Juz number but such system is unscientific and it is not universally acceptable. Qur'an copies printed in the Arab world do not include ruku' markings.

Groups of Surahs

Some Qur'an scholars talk in terms of groups of Surah or complementary couples of Surahs. These complementary groups or couples are based on the themes and like contents. For example, there is a group of Musabbihat, five Surahs that begin with glorification of Allah (Sabbah lillahi or Yusabbihu lillahi). There are many other groups of Surahs that have been suggested. Also, there are twins or complementary couples, such as Surahs 2 and 3 make a couple, Surahs 91 and 92 is another couple. According to such scholars most of the Qur'an consists of complementary couples.

Research by Muhammad Amir Ali

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أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ


Have you made the providing of water for the pilgrim and the maintenance of al-Masjid al-Haram equal to [the deeds of] one who believes in Allah and the Last Day and strives in the cause of Allah? They are not equal in the sight of Allah. And Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

کیا تم نے حاجیوں کو پانی پلانا اور مسجد محترم یعنی (خانہٴ کعبہ) کو آباد کرنا اس شخص کے اعمال جیسا خیال کیا ہے جو خدا اور روز آخرت پر ایمان رکھتا ہے اور خدا کی راہ میں جہاد کرتا ہے۔ یہ لوگ خدا کے نزدیک برابر نہیں ہیں۔ اور خدا ظالم لوگوں کو ہدایت نہیں دیا کرتا

তোমরা কি হাজীদের পানি সরবরাহ ও মসজিদুল-হারাম আবাদকরণকে সেই লোকের সমান মনে কর, যে ঈমান রাখে আল্লাহ ও শেষ দিনের প্রতি এবং যুদ্ধ করেছে আল্লাহর রাহে, এরা আল্লাহর দৃষ্টিতে সমান নয়, আর আল্লাহ জালেম লোকদের হেদায়েত করেন না।

آیا سیراب کردن حجاج، و آباد ساختن مسجد الحرام را، همانند (عمل) کسی قرار دادید که به خدا و روز قیامت ایمان آورده، و در راه او جهاد کرده است؟!(این دو،) نزد خدا مساوی نیستند! و خداوند گروه ظالمان را هدایت نمی‌کند!

(ஈமான் கொள்ளாத நிலையில்) ஹாஜிகளுக்குத் தண்ணீர் புகட்டுவோரையும் கஃபத்துல்லாவை (புனிதப்பள்ளியை) நிர்வாகம் செய்வோரையும் அல்லாஹ்வின் மீதும் இறுதிநாள் மீதும் ஈமான் கொண்டு, அல்லாஹ்வின் பாதையில் அறப்போர் புரிந்தோருக்குச் சமமாக ஆக்கிவிட்டீர்களா? அல்லாஹ்வின் சமூகத்தில் (இவ்விருவரும்) சமமாக மாட்டார்கள் - அநியாயக்காரர்களை அல்லாஹ் நேர்வழியில் செலுத்தமாட்டான்.
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