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Quran Organization / Structure (contd.)

Juz / Para (Part)

In South Asia, Juz is also called "Para". The Qur'an was equally divided into thirty parts, perhaps based on the number of pages disregarding content or Surah. This was done for the convenience of reciting the whole Qur'an in thirty days or one month. Each Juz is also divided into four quarters or four "ruba". The Qur'an copies printed anywhere in the world have Juz and quarter markings as ruba' (first quarter), nusf (one-half) and al-thulatha (three-quarter). This gives 120 quarter-parts of the Qur'an giving the flexibility of reciting the whole Qur'an in equal parts in 30, 60 or 120 days. This type of partitioning of the Qur'an is used very much in South Asia whereas the Arab world does not make much use of it. Even referring to Qur'anic verses South Asians would talk in terms of "Para" number as they carry numbers from 1 to 30 for each Juz. This kind of referring to the Qur'an verses is very unscientific because it does not provide precise location of the verse. If someone says that a verse is in 15th Para, it is not precise enough to find it easily.

Hizb (group)

According to this system each Juz is further divided into two Hizbs and each Hizb is further divided into four quarters. It means that a Juz has two Hizbs and eight Hizb-quarters or each Juz-quarter has two Hizb-quarters. The whole Qur'an is divided into 240 Hizb-quarters. This allows a person to recite the Qur'an in small groups of verses and complete the recitation in one-month to eight-month period. In addition, Hizb partitioning of the Qur'an allows a Muqri (Qur'an reciter) to recite one Hizb in each Raka'ah of Salat at-Traweeh and finish one Juz every night in eight Raka'hs thereby completing the whole Qur'an in 30 nights of Ramadan. Partitioning of the Qur'an in Hizb is not found in the copies printed in South Asia.

Ruku' (bowing or section)

Some Muslims prefer to do 20 raka'ah every night for Salat At-Taraweeh during the month of Ramadan, that is, recite a section and go to ruku' (bowing). They had to find markers to recite a portion of the Qur'an in each Raka'ah while completing a topic. In South Asia the tradition is to complete recitation of the whole Qur'an in 27 nights. This required partitioning of the Qur'an in 27 x 20 = 540 sections excepting the Surah al-Fatiha. When such partitioning was done they ended up with 556 (+1 for Surat al-Fatiha) sections. Evidently, they did not go back to redo the partitioning to come with 540 sections. The Qur'an copies printed in South Asia have Ruku' or Section markings showing number of the ruku' within the Surah, within the Juz and ayah number within the ruku'. Traditionally, South Asian Muslims may give reference of a ayahs from the Qur'an by referring to the ruku' number and Juz number but such system is unscientific and it is not universally acceptable. Qur'an copies printed in the Arab world do not include ruku' markings.

Groups of Surahs

Some Qur'an scholars talk in terms of groups of Surah or complementary couples of Surahs. These complementary groups or couples are based on the themes and like contents. For example, there is a group of Musabbihat, five Surahs that begin with glorification of Allah (Sabbah lillahi or Yusabbihu lillahi). There are many other groups of Surahs that have been suggested. Also, there are twins or complementary couples, such as Surahs 2 and 3 make a couple, Surahs 91 and 92 is another couple. According to such scholars most of the Qur'an consists of complementary couples.

Research by Muhammad Amir Ali

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وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ الْحَسَنَةِ وَقَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِمُ الْمَثُلَاتُ ۗ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِّلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ ظُلْمِهِمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَشَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ


They impatiently urge you to bring about evil before good, while there has already occurred before them similar punishments [to what they demand]. And indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness for the people despite their wrongdoing, and indeed, your Lord is severe in penalty.

اور یہ لوگ بھلائی سے پہلے تم سے برائی کے جلد خواستگار یعنی (طالب عذاب) ہیں حالانکہ ان سے پہلے عذاب (واقع) ہوچکے ہیں اور تمہارا پروردگار لوگوں کو باوجود ان کی بےانصافیوں کے معاف کرنے والا ہے۔ اور بےشک تمہارا پروردگار سخت عذاب دینے والا ہے

এরা আপনার কাছে মঙ্গলের পরিবর্তে দ্রুত অমঙ্গল কামনা করে। তাদের পূর্বে অনুরূপ অনেক শাস্তিপ্রাপ্ত জনগোষ্ঠী অতিক্রান্ত হয়েছে। আপনার পালনকর্তা মানুষকে তাদের অন্যায় সত্বেও ক্ষমা করেন এবং আপনার পালনকর্তা কঠিন শাস্তিদাতা ও বটে।

آنها پیش از حسنه (و رحمت)، از تو تقاضای شتاب در سیّئه (و عذاب) می‌کنند؛ با اینکه پیش از آنها بلاهای عبرت انگیز نازل شده است! و پروردگار تو نسبت به مردم -با اینکه ظلم می‌کنند- دارای مغفرت است؛ و (در عین حال،) پروردگارت دارای عذاب شدید است!

(நபியே!) நன்மை (வருவதற்கு) முன்னர், தீமையைக் கொண்டு (வருமாறு) உம்மை இவர்கள் அவசரப்படுத்துகிறார்கள்; நிச்சயமாக இவர்களுக்கு முன்னரும் (வேதனை மிக்க தண்டனைகள் வழங்கப்பட்ட உதாரணமான) நிகழ்ச்சிகள் நடந்தேயிருக்கின்றன் நிச்சயமாக உம் இறைவன் மனிதர்களை அவர்களின் பாவங்களுக்காக மன்னிப்பவனாகவும் இருக்கின்றான்; மேலும், உம் இறைவன் நிச்சயமாக வேதனை செய்வதிலும் கடுமையானவனாக இருக்கின்றான்.
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